Despite the fact that relations between Poland and Ukraine are experiencing warming, the investigations division of the Polish «Institute of national remembrance» took the most painful pages of our joint history.
In particular, it is about the investigation of the actions of fighters of the UPA against the poles during the Second world war in Western Ukraine in the Volyn region. It is reported ZN.UA with reference to Rzeczpospolita.
Polish investigators believe that the crimes that they are going to investigate is «crimes against humanity» because they were committed against people of Polish nationality. And therefore it is impossible to leave them without investigation, citing the fact that it has been 70 years.
«From the point of view of Ukrainian legislation, these cases are already outdated. So we can’t count on legal assistance from Ukraine to the perpetrators of the killings», said the investigator Konrad Baroni from Wroclaw investigative branch of the «national memory Institute».
At the same time, the Polish investigators promised to investigate events during which the victims were Ukrainians. Studies have been carried out regarding the killings of civilian Ukrainians by poles in the villages of Pavlokoma and Piskavica, as well as about the persecution of Ukrainians from-for suspicions in cooperation with UPA from the intelligence services of Communist Poland.
Earlier, the Ukrainian and Polish institutions of national remembrance decided to create a joint Commission of historians that will the Volyn tragedy.
We will remind, on April 9, Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine adopted the law «On the legal status and the memory of fighters for independence of Ukraine in XX century». Fighters for independence of Ukraine in XX century are those individuals who participated in all forms of political, armed and other collective and individual struggle for independence of Ukraine. The law lists dozens of organizations, ranging from Riflemen, the OUN, the UPA and to the Popular movement. The law requires state and local governments to provide social guarantees, benefits or other payments to the fighters for independence of Ukraine in XX century and their families.
Volyn tragedy (Pol. Rzeź wołyńska, «Volyn massacre») is a mutual ethnic cleansing of Ukrainian and Polish population carried out by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army and the Polish Army by the Polish battalions of uzmanlarca and Soviet partisans in 1943 during the Second world war in Volhynia.
In traditional Polish historiography biased perceived as exclusively ethnic cleansing of the Polish population; in Ukrainian — as «a response» to the atrocities of the poles against the Ukrainian citizens.
In the autumn of 1942 the German authorities began to evict from the territory of the Ukrainian-Polish border of a corridor of poles, and to settle Germans and Ukrainians. In response, the Army Kraeva destroyed hundreds of representatives of the Ukrainian rural elite. In July 1943 the UPA began retaliatory actions against the peaceful Polish population.
According to the estimates of some Polish experts, at the time of the tragedy on the Polish side killed at least 35 thousand people (mostly Polish peasants), the names of 18 thousand of them installed, from the Ukrainian side, Volyn killed up to several thousand people. The number of deaths of Ukrainians on the territories of the Ukrainian-Polish conflict, including Volhynia, reaches 21-24 thousand people.
According to estimates Stepan Makarchuk, total losses among the civilian Ukrainian population of Volhynia during the Second world war amounted to about 120 thousand people. (This is without loss of killed at the front and 70 thousand killed in the Soviet punitive actions against insurgents and partisans of the UPA — 45 thousand people). However, according to Makarchuk, how many of those 120 thousand people died at the hands of poles are difficult to specify because most crimes in the Soviet times «cheated» the Germans, including the mass murders of Ukrainians committed by the Polish collaborators in the auxiliary police forces.
According to the Polish Institute of memory (IPN), which began in July 1943 of mass actions forced the poles to leave the territory of the Volyn region of Ukraine, which until 1939 was part of the Polish state, at the hands of Ukrainians killed about 100 thousand of poles.
The Ukrainian historians consider the overestimation of their Polish counterparts, noting that as a result of these events at the hands of poles also killed Ukrainians.
The most famous massacre of the Ukrainians, the poles organized Chelm was a tragedy. Thus, in March 1944, the repression of poles against the Ukrainian population of Ukrainian ethnic lands beyond the bug river acquired a mass character, because of what this time in the history of Ukraine was called «black March».
Enhance the burning of Ukrainian villages and killings of Ukrainians contributed to the liberation of Poland from German occupation and the legal recognition Holm, Nadsiannia, Lemko, and other lands in Poland. Only Hrubieszowska County Polish nationalists burned 52 of the Ukrainian village and killed at least four thousand people. These events are «logically» concluded the September agreement between the Government of the Ukrainian SSR and the Polish Committee of national liberation, «the evacuation of Ukrainian population from Poland and Polish citizens from the territory of the USSR.»
The deportation of Ukrainians continued until 1947, to the infamous action Vistula’. According to various estimates from Poland were deported from 600 thousand to 1 million Ukrainians.
Poland began to investigate the actions of the UPA against the poles during the Second world — media 02.02.2016